Endorsement of gender stereotypes in gender diverse and cisgender adolescents and their parents

Benjamin deMayo, Shira Kahn-Samuelson, Kristina R. Olson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Previous work has documented adolescents’ gender stereotype endorsement, or the extent to which one believes men or women should embody distinct traits. However, understanding of gender stereotype endorsement in gender diverse adolescents—those who identify as transgender, nonbinary, and/or gender nonconforming—is limited. Gender diverse adolescents’ experiences with gender raise the question of whether they endorse gender stereotypes with the same frequency as cisgender adolescents. In this study, we investigated three primary research questions: (1) if gender diverse (N = 144) and cisgender (N = 174) adolescents (13–17 years) and their parents (N = 143 parents of gender diverse adolescents, N = 160 parents of cisgender adolescents) endorse gender stereotypes; (2) whether these groups differed from one another in their endorsement of gender stereotypes; and (3) whether parents’ gender stereotyping was related to either their adolescents’ stereotyping and/or their adolescents’ predictions of their parents’ stereotyping. We found (1) that participants showed low amounts of stereotyping; (2) there were no significant differences between gender stereotype endorsement in gender diverse and cisgender adolescents (or between their parents), though parents endorsed stereotypes slightly less than adolescents; and (3) there was a small positive association between adolescents’ stereotyping and their parents’ gender stereotyping. We discuss the limitations of our methods, and the possibility that rates of explicit stereotype endorsement may be changing over time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0269784
JournalPloS one
Issue number6 June
StatePublished - Jun 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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