Electron, ion and vacuum ultraviolet photon effects in 193 nm photoresist surface roughening

T. Y. Chung, D. Nest, D. B. Graves, F. Weilnboeck, R. L. Bruce, G. S. Oehrlein, D. Wang, M. Li, E. A. Hudson

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20 Scopus citations


Low temperature plasma exposure of methacrylate-based 193 nm photoresist (PR) can result in enhanced surface roughening or smoothing, but mechanisms are poorly understood. We present measurements of 193 nm PR surface roughness following exposure to 1 keV electron beams in various combinations with positive ion and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon irradiation. Electron beams will scission or cross-link 193 nm PR under low and high fluence exposure, respectively. When coupled to simultaneous ion/VUV photon irradiation, low fluence (scissioning) electrons amplify surface roughening while high fluence (cross-linking) electrons reduce surface roughness. These results further suggest that enhanced roughening of 193 nm PR is initiated by the synergistic interaction between an ion bombardment-induced carbon-rich surface layer (∼2 nm) and a sicssioned bulk layer (∼100 nm).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number272001
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Issue number27
StatePublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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