Efficient and Selectable Production of Reactive Species Using a Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge in Gas Bubbles in Liquid

Xiujuan J. Dai, Cormac S. Corr, Sri B. Ponraj, Mohammad Maniruzzaman, Arun T. Ambujakshan, Zhiqiang Chen, Ladge Kviz, Robert Lovett, Gayathri D. Rajmohan, David R. De Celis, Marion L. Wright, Peter R. Lamb, Yakov E. Krasik, David B. Graves, William G. Graham, Riccardo D'Agostino, Xungai Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


A plasma gas bubble-in-liquid method for high production of selectable reactive species using a nanosecond pulse generator has been developed. The gas of choice is fed through a hollow needle in a point-to-plate bubble discharge, enabling improved selection of reactive species. The increased interface reactions, between the gas-plasma and water through bubbles, give higher productivity. H2O2 was the predominant species produced using Ar plasma, while predominantly NO3- and NO2 were generated using air plasma, in good agreement with the observed emission spectra. This method has nearly 100% selectivity for H2O2, with seven times higher production, and 92% selectivity for NO3-, with nearly twice the production, compared with a plasma above the water. A plasma gas bubble-in-liquid, with chosen gas, method is described. The gas of choice enables improved selection of reactive species and increased interface reactions enable higher productivity. "Ar" plasma produces a high concentration of H2O2, while "air" plasma produces high concentrations ofNO3- and NO2. The selectivity and productivity are much higher than with a plasma created above liquid.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)306-310
Number of pages5
JournalPlasma Processes and Polymers
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Polymers and Plastics


  • nanosecond
  • plasma in liquid
  • pulsed discharges
  • reactive species
  • selectivity


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