Effects of explaining on children's preference for simpler hypotheses

Caren M. Walker, Elizabeth Bonawitz, Tania Lombrozo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Research suggests that the process of explaining influences causal reasoning by prompting learners to favor hypotheses that offer “good” explanations. One feature of a good explanation is its simplicity. Here, we investigate whether prompting children to generate explanations for observed effects increases the extent to which they favor causal hypotheses that offer simpler explanations, and whether this changes over the course of development. Children aged 4, 5, and 6 years observed several outcomes that could be explained by appeal to a common cause (the simple hypothesis) or two independent causes (the complex hypothesis). We varied whether children were prompted to explain each observation or, in a control condition, to report it. Children were then asked to make additional inferences for which the competing hypotheses generated different predictions. The results revealed developmental differences in the extent to which children favored simpler hypotheses as a basis for further inference in this task: 4-year-olds did not favor the simpler hypothesis in either condition; 5-year-olds favored the simpler hypothesis only when prompted to explain; and 6-year-olds favored the simpler hypothesis whether or not they explained.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1538-1547
Number of pages10
JournalPsychonomic Bulletin and Review
Volume24
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Keywords

  • Causal inference
  • Cognitive development
  • Explanation
  • Simplicity

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