Effects of Alkali Cations and Sulfate/Chloride Anions on the Flux Growth of {001}-Faceted β-Li2TiO3 Crystals

Xiong Xiao, Fumitaka Hayashi, Kunio Yubuta, Annabella Selloni, Katsuya Teshima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The β-Li2TiO3 crystal is an important material in several energy-related applications, and the control of its morphology and exposed facets is an important issue. Herein, we comprehensively studied the flux growth of β-Li2TiO3 crystals under different conditions and demonstrated the efficient anisotropic growth of {001}-faceted β-Li2TiO3 single crystals from the Na2SO4 flux. By examining the effects of the cation and anion in the alkali metal salt-based flux, we found that Na2SO4 flux is best for growing large, faceted β-Li2TiO3 crystals. In this flux at 1000 °C, the optimal solute concentration is 20 mol % for growing large (∼15.0 μm in lateral size), platy, and faceted β-Li2TiO3 crystals. Observations from varying the holding time and cooling rate indicated that these crystals were anisotropically grown. Transmission electron microscopy images with clear electron diffraction spots revealed that the flux-grown platy β-Li2TiO3 crystals are single crystalline solids with the {001} plane being the dominant facet. This anisotropic crystal growth could be attributed to the concerted effects of the preferential attachment of sodium cations on the {001} faces, and efficient dissolution of β-Li2TiO3 crystals as well as the solvation of the resulting O2- ions in the sulfate anion-based flux.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1118-1124
Number of pages7
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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