In this work we used brefeldin A (BFA), a specific inhihitor of export to the Golgi apparatus, to study pseudorabies virus viral glycoprotein processing and virus egress. BFA had little effect on initial synthesis and cotranslational modification of viral glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (FR), but it disrupted subsequent glycoprotein maturation and export. Additionally, single-step growth experiments demonstrated that after the addition of BFA, accumulation of infectious virus stopped abruptly. BFA interruption of virus egress was reversible. Electron microscopic analysis of infected cells demonstrated BFA-induced disappearance of the Golgi apparatus accompanied by a dramatic accumulation of enveloped virions between the inner and outer nuclear membranes and also in the ER. Large numbers of envelope-free capsids were also present in the cytoplasm of all samples. In control samples, these capsids were preferentially associated with the forming face of Golgi bodies and acquired a membrane envelope derived from the trans-cisternae. Our results are consistent with a multistep pathway for envelopment of pseudorabies virus that involves initial acquisition of a membrane by budding of capsids through the inner leaf of the nuclear envelope followed by deenvelopment and release of these capsids from the ER into the cytoplasm in proximity to the trans-Golgi. The released capsids then acquire a bilaminar double envelope containing mature viral glycoproteins at the trans-Golgi. The resulting double-membraned virus is transported to the plasma membrane, where membrane fusion releases a mature, enveloped virus particle from the cell.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science