Dynamics of influenza A drift: The linear three-strain model

Juan Lin, Viggo Andreasen, Simon Asher Levin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


We analyze an epidemiological model consisting of a linear chain of three cocirculating influenza A strains that provide hosts exposed to a given strain with partial immune cross-protection against other strains. In the extreme case where infection with the middle strain prevents further infections from the other two strains, we reduce the model to a six- dimensional kernel capable of showing self-sustaining oscillations at relatively high levels of cross-protection. Dimensional reduction has been accomplished by a transformation of variables that preserves the eigenvalue responsible for the transition from damped oscillations to limit cycle solutions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-51
Number of pages19
JournalMathematical Biosciences
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Nov 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • Applied Mathematics
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • Statistics and Probability
  • Modeling and Simulation


  • Cross-immunity
  • Influenza drift
  • Multiple strains


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