Cool flames play a critical role in ignition timing, burning rate, burning limits, engine knocking, and emissions in conventional and advanced combustion engines. This paper provides an overview of the recent progress in experimental and computational studies of cool flames. First, a brief review of low-temperature chemistry and classical studies of cool flames is presented. Next, the recent experimental and computational findings of cool flames in microchannels, microgravity droplet combustion, counterflow flames, and turbulent combustion environments are reviewed. The flammability diagrams of different low-temperature flames and their relations to hot flames in premixed and nonpremixed systems are discussed. The impact of cool flames on turbulent combustion and knock formation is also highlighted. Finally, future avenues in cool flame research, including the use of cool flames as a new platform for low-temperature kinetic model validation, are presented. It is concluded that the understanding and control of low-temperature combustion is critical for the development of future advanced engines and new fuels.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Chemical Engineering
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Cool flame
- Flame dynamics
- Low-temperature chemistry