A universal influenza vaccine (UIV) could considerably alleviate the public health burden of both seasonal and pandemic influenza. Although significant progress has been achieved in clarifying basic immunology and virology relating to UIV, several important questions relating to the dynamics of infection, immunity, and pathogen evolution remain unsolved. In this study, we review these gaps, which span integrative levels, from cellular to global and timescales from molecular events to decades. We argue that they can be best addressed by a tight integration of empirical (laboratory, epidemiological) research and theory and suggest fruitful areas for this synthesis. In particular, quantifying natural and vaccinal limitations on viral transmission are central to this effort.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Infectious Diseases
- Influenza vaccination
- Shedding-transmission relationship
- Viral eco-evolutionary dynamics