Double jeopardy? The interaction of gender and race on earnings in the United States

Emily Greenman, Yu Xie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

121 Scopus citations


There are sizeable earnings differentials by gender and race in the U.S. labor market, with women earning less than men and most racial/ethnic minority groups earning less than whites. It has been proposed in the previous literature that the effects of gender and race on earnings are additive, so that minority women suffer the full disadvantage of each status. We test this proposition for a broad range of minority groups in the United States. We find that women of all minority groups suffer a smaller gender penalty than white women (relative to same-race men). Exploring the potential role of racial variation in gender role specialization in producing such differentials, we find some empirical evidence suggesting that white families specialize more than families of most other races.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1217-1244
Number of pages28
JournalSocial Forces
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2008
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anthropology
  • History
  • Sociology and Political Science


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