We study a distributed decision-making problem in which multiple agents face the same multi-armed bandit (MAB), and each agent makes sequential choices among arms to maximize its own individual reward. The agents cooperate by sharing their estimates over a fixed communication graph. We consider an unconstrained reward model in which two or more agents can choose the same arm and collect independent rewards. And we consider a constrained reward model in which agents that choose the same arm at the same time receive no reward. We design a dynamic, consensus-based, distributed estimation algorithm for cooperative estimation of mean rewards at each arm. We leverage the estimates from this algorithm to develop two distributed algorithms: coop-UCB2 and coop-UCB2-selective-learning, for the unconstrained and constrained reward models, respectively. We show that both algorithms achieve group performance close to the performance of a centralized fusion center. Further, we investigate the influence of the communication graph structure on performance. We propose a novel graph explore–exploit index that predicts the relative performance of groups in terms of the communication graph, and we propose a novel nodal explore–exploit centrality index that predicts the relative performance of agents in terms of the agent locations in the communication graph.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Distributed decision making
- Explore–exploit dilemma
- Multi-agent systems
- Multi-armed bandits