Chlorine dioxide, an industrially important biocide and bleach, is produced rapidly and efficiently from chlorite ion in the presence of water-soluble, manganese porphyrins and porphyrazines at neutral pH under mild conditions. The electron-deficient manganese(III) tetra-(N,N-dimethyl)imidazolium porphyrin (MnTDMImP), tetra-(N,N-dimethyl)benzimidazolium (MnTDMBImP) porphyrin, and manganese(III) tetra-N-methyl-2,3-pyridinoporphyrazine (MnTM23PyPz) were found to be the most efficient catalysts for this process. The more typical manganese tetra-4-N-methylpyridiumporphyrin (Mn-4-TMPyP) was much less effective. Rates for the best catalysts were in the range of 0.24-32 TO/s with MnTM23PyPz being the fastest. The kinetics of reactions of the various ClO x species (e.g., chlorite ion, hypochlorous acid, and chlorine dioxide) with authentic oxomanganese(IV) and dioxomanganese(V)MnTDMImP intermediates were studied by stopped-flow spectroscopy. Rate-limiting oxidation of the manganese(III) catalyst by chlorite ion via oxygen atom transfer is proposed to afford a trans-dioxomanganese(V) intermediate. Both trans-dioxomanganese(V)TDMImP and oxoaqua-manganese(IV)TDMImP oxidize chlorite ion by 1-electron, generating the product chlorine dioxide with bimolecular rate constants of 6.30 × 10 3 M -1 s -1 and 3.13 × 10 3 M -1 s -1, respectively, at pH 6.8. Chlorine dioxide was able to oxidize manganese(III)TDMImP to oxomanganese(IV) at a similar rate, establishing a redox steady-state equilibrium under turnover conditions. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced during turnover was found to rapidly and reversibly react with manganese(III)TDMImP to give dioxoMn(V)TDMImP and chloride ion. The measured equilibrium constant for this reaction (K eq = 2.2 at pH 5.1) afforded a value for the oxoMn(V)/Mn(III) redox couple under catalytic conditions (E′ = 1.35 V vs NHE). In subsequent processes, chlorine dioxide reacts with both oxomanganese(V) and oxomanganese(IV)TDMImP to afford chlorate ion. Kinetic simulations of the proposed mechanism using experimentally measured rate constants were in agreement with observed chlorine dioxide growth and decay curves, measured chlorate yields, and the oxoMn(IV)/Mn(III) redox potential (1.03 V vs NHE). This acid-free catalysis could form the basis for a new process to make ClO 2.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry