Discovery, function, and engineering of graspetides

Brian Choi, A. James Link

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Graspetides are a class of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) defined by the presence of ester or amide side chain-side chain linkages resulting in peptide macrocycles. The graspetide name comes from the ATP-grasp enzymes that install the side chain-side chain linkages. This review covers the early, activity-based isolation of the first graspetides, marinostatins and microviridins, as well as the key genomics-driven experiments that established graspetide as RiPPs. The mechanism and structure of graspetide-associated ATP-grasp enzymes is discussed. Genome mining methods to discover new graspetides as well as the analytical techniques used to determine the linkages in graspetides are described. Extant knowledge on the bioactivity of graspetides as protease inhibitors is reviewed. Further chemical modifications to graspetides as well as graspetide engineering studies are also described. We conclude with several suggestions about future directions of graspetide research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)620-633
Number of pages14
JournalTrends in Chemistry
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry


  • RiPPs
  • graspetides
  • natural product


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