Democratic Values and Support for Militant Politics: Evidence from a National Survey of Pakistan

C. Christine Fair, Neil Malhotra, Jacob N. Shapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


A long-standing research tradition on political culture argues that greater support for core liberal values leads to a rejection of destructive political activities and reduced support for violent politics. In this vein, many contemporary analysts of security policy contend that a lack of democratic values in the Middle East promotes the development of violent political organizations. Unfortunately, there have been few direct tests of the hypothesis that an individual’s rejection of democratic values correlates with support for militant groups. We conduct such a test in Pakistan using an original 6,000-person provincially representative survey. We find that strong supporters of democratic values are actually more supportive of militant groups and that this relationship is strongest among those who believe that Muslim rights and sovereignty are being violated in Kashmir. This is consistent with the context of Pakistani politics, where many militant groups use the principle of azadi (i.e., freedom and self-determination) to justify their actions. These results challenge the conventional wisdom about the roots of militancy and underscore the importance of understanding how local context mediates the influence of civic culture on political stability and violence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)743-770
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Conflict Resolution
Issue number5
StatePublished - Aug 1 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Business, Management and Accounting
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Political Science and International Relations


  • democratic values
  • endorsement experiment
  • militancy
  • terrorism


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