Hydrochar derived from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been recognized as a promising carbonaceous material for environmental remediation. Organic solvents are widely used to extract bio-oil from hydrochar after HTC, but the effects of solvent extraction on hydrochar characteristics have not been investigated. This study comprehensively analyzed the effects of different washing times and solvent types on the hydrochar properties. The results indicate that the mass loss of hydrochar by tetrahydrofuran washing occurred mainly in the first 90 min, and the loss ratios of elements followed a descending order of H > C > O, resulting in a decrease in the H/C atomic ratio and an increase in the O/C atomic ratio. The use of various solvents for washing brought about hydrochar loss ratios in a descending order of petroleum ether < dichloromethane < acetone < tetrahydrofuran. The results from the Van Krevelen diagram and Fourier transform infrared, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies further confirmed that demethanation controlled this washing process. Most importantly, the surface area of hydrochar increased after bio-oil removal via washing, which promoted the surface area development for hydrochar-derived magnetic carbon composites, but to some extent decreased the microporosity. Additionally, hydrochar washing by organic solvent has important implications for the global carbon cycle and its remediation application.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry