Protein-truncating variants (PTVs) have important impacts on phenotype diversity and disease. However, their population genetics characteristics in more globally diverse populations are not well defined. Here, we describe patterns of PTVs in 1320 genes sequenced in 10,539 healthy controls and 9434 patients with psoriasis, all of Han Chinese ancestry. We identify 8720 PTVs, of which 77% are novel, and estimate 88% of all PTVs are deleterious and subject to purifying selection. Furthermore, we show that individuals with psoriasis have a significantly higher burden of PTVs compared to controls (P = 0.02). Finally, we identified 18 PTVs in 14 genes with unusually high levels of population differentiation, consistent with the action of local adaptation. Our study provides insights into patterns and consequences of PTVs.
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