Cross-Layer Network Lifetime Maximization in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Yuan Zhou, Hongyu Yang, Yu Hen Hu, Sun Yuan Kung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


A cross-layer design methodology that jointly optimizes the link-layer network flow rate and the physical layer transmission power wherein rate is developed for energy-constrained underwater wireless sensor networks. The objective of the design is to maximize the lifetime of the network operation for a given network topology and a bound of the total transmission time of all links. Initially, each node is set to transmit at the most energy-efficient transmission rate, which is derived using an underwater acoustic channel model. A constrained least square problem then is formulated which yields an analytical solution of the optimal network flow at each link that maximizes the network lifetime. If the timing constraint is not met, a new iteration will begin with the restriction on per-node energy consumption incrementally relaxed. Usually, the algorithm converges within a couple of iterations. Two design examples, a linear configured network, and a rhombus configured network are used to demonstrate the design procedures. Extensive simulations have been performed and superior performance (longer network lifetime) of this proposed design has been observed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8742680
Pages (from-to)220-231
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Cross-layer design
  • network lifetime
  • resource allocation
  • underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs)


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