Controlling the work function of indium tin oxide: Differentiating dipolar from local surface effects

Jeffrey Schwartz, Eric L. Bruner, Norbert Koch, Amelia R. Span, Steven L. Bernasek, Antoine Kahn

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Indium tin oxide (ITO) reacts with tetra(tert-butoxy)tin to give surface bound alkoxytin species. Ligand exchange occurs in these surface bound species by reaction with substituted phenols. The speciation of surface phenoxides was measured in ultrahigh vacuum by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as was the work function for the surface modified ITO. It is shown that the molecular dipole moment of the phenol correlates strongly with the measured ITO work function change; no such correlation exists between the acidity of the phenol and this measured change in work function. Results are consistent therefore with an electrostatic model and not with one involving electronegativities of the ligated phenoxide oxygens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)223-227
Number of pages5
JournalSynthetic Metals
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jun 2 2003
EventOrganic Materials for Device Applications - Proceedings - Strasbourg, France
Duration: Jun 18 2002Jun 21 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


  • ITO
  • Surface dipole
  • Surface modification


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