Controlled p doping of the hole-transport molecular material N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-di amine with tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane

Weiying Gao, Antoine Kahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

239 Scopus citations

Abstract

A study of controlled p-type doping of the hole-transport organic molecular material N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1′-biphenyl- 4,4′-diamine (α-NPD) with tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane was performed. Direct and inverse photoemission spectroscopy, contact potential difference measurements, and in situ current-voltage (I-V) measurements were used in the study. The results show that the large relaxation energy of the ionized α-NPD molecule limits the movement of the Fermi level and, ultimately, the hole injection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)359-366
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume94
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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