Contrastive learning using spectral methods

James Zou, Daniel Hsu, David Parkes, Ryan Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


In many natural settings, the analysis goal is not to characterize a single data set in isolation, but rather to understand the difference between one set of observations and another. For example, given a background corpus of news articles together with writings of a particular author, one may want a topic model that explains word patterns and themes specific to the author. Another example comes from genomics, in which biological signals may be collected from different regions of a genome, and one wants a model that captures the differential statistics observed in these regions. This paper formalizes this notion of contrastive learning for mixture models, and develops spectral algorithms for inferring mixture components specific to a foreground data set when contrasted with a background data set. The method builds on recent moment-based estimators and tensor decompositions for latent variable models, and has the intuitive feature of using background data statistics to appropriately modify moments estimated from foreground data. A key advantage of the method is that the background data need only be coarsely modeled, which is important when the background is too complex, noisy, or not of interest. The method is demonstrated on applications in contrastive topic modeling and genomic sequence analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAdvances in Neural Information Processing Systems
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes
Event27th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, NIPS 2013 - Lake Tahoe, NV, United States
Duration: Dec 5 2013Dec 10 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Information Systems
  • Signal Processing


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