Constructing Printable Surfaces with View-Dependent Appearance

Maxine Perroni-Scharf, Szymon Rusinkiewicz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


We present a method for the digital fabrication of surfaces whose appearance varies based on viewing direction. The surfaces are constructed from a mesh of bars arranged in a self-occluding colored heightfield that creates the desired view-dependent effects. At the heart of our method is a novel and simple differentiable rendering algorithm specifically designed to render colored 3D heightfields and enable efficient calculation of the gradient of appearance with respect to heights and colors. This algorithm forms the basis of a coarse-to-fine ML-based optimization process that adjusts the heights and colors of the strips to minimize the loss between the desired and real surface appearance from each viewpoint, deriving meshes that can then be fabricated using a 3D printer. Using our method, we demonstrate both synthetic and real-world fabricated results with view-dependent appearance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - SIGGRAPH 2023 Conference Papers
EditorsStephen N. Spencer
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery, Inc
ISBN (Electronic)9798400701597
StatePublished - Jul 23 2023
Event2023 Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques Conference, SIGGRAPH 2023 - Los Angeles, United States
Duration: Aug 6 2023Aug 10 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings - SIGGRAPH 2023 Conference Papers


Conference2023 Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques Conference, SIGGRAPH 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityLos Angeles

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


  • Digital Fabrication
  • Ultraviolet Printer


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