Existing research for image text retrieval mainly relies on sentence-level supervision to distinguish matched and mismatched sentences for a query image. However, semantic mismatch between an image and sentences usually happens in finer grain, i.e., phrase level. In this paper, we explore to introduce additional phrase-level supervision for the better identification of mismatched units in the text. In practice, multi-grained semantic labels are automatically constructed for a query image in both sentence-level and phrase-level. We construct text scene graphs for the matched sentences and extract entities and triples as the phrase-level labels. In order to integrate both supervision of sentence-level and phrase-level, we propose Semantic Structure Aware Multimodal Transformer (SSAMT) for multi-modal representation learning. Inside the SSAMT, we utilize different kinds of attention mechanisms to enforce interactions of multi-grained semantic units in both sides of vision and language. For the training, we propose multi-scale matching from both global and local perspectives, and penalize mismatched phrases. Experimental results on MS-COCO and Flickr30K show the effectiveness of our approach compared to some state-of-the-art models.