Comparison friction: Experimental evidence from medicare drug plans

Jeffrey R. Kling, Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir, Lee C. Vermeulen, Marian V. Wrobel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

195 Scopus citations


Consumers need information to compare alternatives for markets to function efficiently. Recognizing this, public policies often pair competition with easy access to comparative information. The implicit assumption is that comparison friction-the wedge between the availability of comparative information and consumers' use of it-is inconsequential because when information is readily available, consumers will access this information and make effective choices. We examine the extent of comparison friction in the market for Medicare Part D prescription drug plans in the United States. In a randomized field experiment, an intervention group received a letter with personalized cost information. That information was readily available for free and widely advertised. However, this additional step-providing the information rather than having consumers actively access it-had an impact. Plan switching was 28% in the intervention group, versus 17% in the comparison group, and the intervention caused an average decline in predicted consumer cost of about $100 a year among letter recipients-roughly 5% of the cost in the comparison group. Our results suggest that comparison friction can be large even when the cost of acquiring information is small and may be relevant for a wide range of public policies that incorporate consumer choice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-235
Number of pages37
JournalQuarterly Journal of Economics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Economics and Econometrics


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