Collective Ferromagnetism of Artificial Square Spin Ice

N. S. Bingham, X. Zhang, J. Ramberger, O. Heinonen, C. Leighton, P. Schiffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


We study the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the total magnetic moment of large-area permalloy artificial square spin ice arrays. The temperature dependence and hysteresis behavior are consistent with the coherent magnetization reversal expected in the Stoner-Wohlfarth model, with clear deviations due to interisland interactions at small lattice spacing. Through micromagnetic simulations, we explore this behavior and demonstrate that the deviations result from increasingly complex magnetization reversal at small lattice spacing, induced by interisland interactions, and depending critically on details of the island shapes. These results establish new means to tune the physical properties of artificial spin ice structures and other interacting nanomagnet systems, such as patterned magnetic media.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number067201
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 5 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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