Classical vs Quantum Random Oracles

Takashi Yamakawa, Mark Zhandry

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

In this paper, we study relationship between security of cryptographic schemes in the random oracle model (ROM) and quantum random oracle model (QROM). First, we introduce a notion of a proof of quantum access to a random oracle (PoQRO), which is a protocol to prove the capability to quantumly access a random oracle to a classical verifier. We observe that a proof of quantumness recently proposed by Brakerski et al. (TQC ’20) can be seen as a PoQRO. We also give a construction of a publicly verifiable PoQRO relative to a classical oracle. Based on them, we construct digital signature and public key encryption schemes that are secure in the ROM but insecure in the QROM. In particular, we obtain the first examples of natural cryptographic schemes that separate the ROM and QROM under a standard cryptographic assumption. On the other hand, we give lifting theorems from security in the ROM to that in the QROM for certain types of cryptographic schemes and security notions. For example, our lifting theorems are applicable to Fiat-Shamir non-interactive arguments, Fiat-Shamir signatures, and Full-Domain-Hash signatures etc. We also discuss applications of our lifting theorems to quantum query complexity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2021 - 40th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Proceedings
EditorsAnne Canteaut, François-Xavier Standaert
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Pages568-597
Number of pages30
ISBN (Print)9783030778859
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021
Event40th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, EUROCRYPT 2021 - Zagreb, Croatia
Duration: Oct 17 2021Oct 21 2021

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12697 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Conference

Conference40th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, EUROCRYPT 2021
Country/TerritoryCroatia
CityZagreb
Period10/17/2110/21/21

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)

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