Clarifying Fog Computing and Networking: 10 Questions and Answers

Mung Chiang, Sangtae Ha, I. Chih-Lin, Fulvio Risso, Tao Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

190 Scopus citations


Some of the facts and information related to fog computing and networking are discussed. Fog computing is an end-to-end horizontal architecture that distributes computing, storage, control, and networking functions closer to users along the cloud-to-thing continuum. Fog also supports other areas of applications, such as those in fifth generation (5G) cellular or embedded artificial intelligence. Unique advantages that are potentially offered by fog can be summarized with an acronym, SCALE that is security, cognition, agility, latency, and efficiency. Fog systems and applications will often be distributed and operated remotely. Some fog systems can also be resource-constrained. Compared to centralized clouds, such distributed, remote, and resource-constrained fog systems pose additional security challenges often encountered in distributed systems. A fog system, bringing resources closer to end users, can enable a wide range of new fog-based services. Standards will be required for users and their devices to interact with the fog system to discover, request, and receive fog services. So will automatic and lightweight bidding mechanisms for access to fog resources and services to reinforce the economic sustainability of the fog computing model, and enabling economic transactions. As expected, a growing range of innovative fog-based services, including fog systems and services as a service, will emerge. The cloud and the fog will converge into unified end-to-end platforms and provide integrated services and applications, creating opportunities for fundamental disruptions to the existing cloud computing business models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7901470
Pages (from-to)18-20
Number of pages3
JournalIEEE Communications Magazine
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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