Children and gender inequality: Evidence from Denmark

Henrik Kleven, Camille Landais, Jakob Egholt Søgaard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

270 Scopus citations

Abstract

Using Danish administrative data, we study the impacts of children on gender inequality in the labor market. The arrival of children creates a long-run gender gap in earnings of around 20 percent driven by hours worked, participation, and wage rates. We identify mechanisms driving these "child penalties" in terms of occupation, sector, and firm choices. We find that the fraction of gender inequality caused by child penalties has featured a dramatic increase over the last three to four decades. Finally, we show that child penalties are transmitted through generations, from parents to daughters, suggesting an influence of childhood environment on gender identity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-209
Number of pages29
JournalAmerican Economic Journal: Applied Economics
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Children and gender inequality: Evidence from Denmark'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this