In this Perspective, we highlight recent progress and challenges related to the integration of lithium metal anodes in solid-state batteries. While prior reports have suggested that solid electrolytes may be impermeable to lithium metal, this hypothesis has been disproven under a variety of electrolyte compositions and cycling conditions. Herein, we describe the mechanistic origins and importance of lithium filament growth and interphase formation in inorganic and organic solid electrolytes. Multimodal techniques that combine real and reciprocal space imaging and modeling will be necessary to fully understand nonequilibrium dynamics at these buried interfaces. Currently, most studies on lithium electrode kinetics at solid electrolyte interfaces are completed in symmetric Li-Li configurations. To fully understand the challenges and opportunities afforded by Li-metal anodes, full-cell experiments are necessary. Finally, the impacts of operating conditions on solid-state batteries are largely unknown with respect to pressure, geometry, and break-in protocols. Given the rapid growth of this community and the diverse portfolio of solid electrolytes, we highlight the need for detailed reporting of experimental conditions and standardization of protocols across the community.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemistry (miscellaneous)
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Materials Chemistry