We investigate the near-critical dynamics of atomic density fluctuations in the nonequilibrium self-organization transition of an optically driven quantum gas coupled to a single mode of a cavity. In this system cavity-mediated long-range interactions between atoms, tunable by the drive strength, lead to softening of an excitation mode recently observed in experiments. This phenomenon has previously been studied within a two-mode approximation for the collective motional degrees of freedom of the atomic condensate, which results in an effective open-system Dicke model. Here, including the full spectrum of atomic modes we find a finite lifetime for a rotonlike mode in the Bogoliubov excitation spectrum that is strongly pump dependent. The corresponding decay rate and critical exponents for the phase transition are calculated explaining the nonmonotonic pump-dependent atomic damping rate observed in recent experiments. We compute the near-critical behavior of the intracavity field fluctuations that has been previously shown to be enhanced with respect to the equilibrium Dicke model in a two-mode approximation. We highlight the role of the finite size of the system in the suppression of it below the expectations of the open Dicke model.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)