We investigate a possible correlation between the solid surface density Σ of the minimum-mass extrasolar nebula (MMEN) and the host star mass M ∗ and metallicity [Fe/H]. Leveraging on the precise host star properties from the California-Kepler Survey (CKS), we found that Σ=50-20+33,rm g, cm-2 (a/1 au)-1.75±0.07 (M ∗/M o˙)1.04±0.22 100.22±0.05[Fe/H] for Kepler-like systems (1-4R ⊕; a < 1 au). The strong M ∗ dependence is reminiscent of previous dust continuum results that the solid disk mass scales with M ∗. The weaker [Fe/H] dependence shows that sub-Neptune planets, unlike giant planets, form readily in lower metallicity environment. The innermost region (a < 0.1 au) of an MMEN maintains a smooth profile despite a steep decline of planet occurrence rate: a result that favors the truncation of disks by corotating magnetospheres with a range of rotation periods, rather than the sublimation of dust. The Σ of Kepler multitransiting systems shows a much stronger correlation with M ∗ and [Fe/H] than singles. This suggests that the dynamically hot evolution that produced single systems also partially removed the memory of formation in disks. Radial-velocity planets yielded a MMEN very similar to CKS planets; transit-timing-variation planets' postulated convergent migration history is supported by their poorly constrained MMEN. We found that lower mass stars have a higher efficiency of forming/retaining planets: for Sun-like stars, about 20% of the solid mass within ∼1 au are converted/preserved as sub-Neptunes, compared to 70% for late-K to early-M stars. This may be due to the lower binary fraction, lower giant-planet occurrence, or the longer disk lifetime of lower mass stars.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science