The process of carbon dioxide capture typically requires a large amount of energy for the separation of carbon dioxide from other gases, which has been a major barrier to the widespread deployment of carbon capture technologies. Innovation of carbon dioxide adsorbents is herein vital for the attainment of a sustainable carbon capture process. In this study, we investigated the electrified synthesis and rejuvenation of calcium-based layered double hydroxides (Ca-based LDHs) as solid adsorbents for CO2. We discovered that the particle morphology and phase purity of the LDHs, along with the presence of secondary phases, can be controlled by tuning the current density during electrodeposition on a porous carbon substrate. The change in phase composition during carbonation and calcination was investigated to unveil the effect of different intercalated anions on the surface basicity and thermal stability of Ca-based LDHs. By decoupling the adsorption of water and CO2, we showed that the adsorbed water largely promoted CO2 adsorption, most likely through a sequential dissolution and reaction pathway. A carbon capture capacity of 4.3 ± 0.5 mmol/g was measured at 30 °C and relative humidity of 40% using 10 vol % CO2 in nitrogen as the feed stream. After CO2 capture occurred, the thermal regeneration step was carried out by directly passing an electric current through the conductive carbon substrate, known as the Joule-heating effect. CO2 was found to start desorbing from the Ca-based LDHs at a temperature as low as 220 °C as opposed to the temperature above 700 °C required for calcium carbonate that forms as part of the Ca-looping capture process. Finally, we evaluated the cumulative energy demand and environmental impact of the LDH-based capture process using a life cycle assessment. We identified the most environmentally concerning step in the process and concluded that the postcombustion CO2 capture using LDH could be advantageous compared with existing technologies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Chemistry
- Environmental Chemistry
- Ca-based layered double hydroxide
- Carbon capture
- Joule heating
- Life cycle assessment