Bose-Einstein Condensation and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking1

Elliott H. Lieb, Robert Seiringer, Jakob Yngvason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


After recalling briefly the connection between spontaneous symmetry breaking and off-diagonal long-range order for models of magnets a general proof of spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry as a consequence of Bose-Einstein condensation is presented. The proof is based on a rigorous validation of Bogoliubov's c-number substitution for the k = 0 mode operator α0.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)389-399
Number of pages11
JournalReports on Mathematical Physics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Mathematical Physics


  • Bose-Einstein condensation
  • c-number substituions
  • gauge symmetry


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