Biopharmaceutical Evaluation of Novel Cyclosporine A Nano-matrix Particles for Inhalation

Hideyuki Sato, Hiroki Suzuki, Keisuke Yakushiji, Jennifer Wong, Yoshiki Seto, Robert K. Prud’homme, Hak Kim Chan, Satomi Onoue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the biopharmaceutical properties of cyclosporine A (CsA)-loaded nano-matrix particles for inhalation. Methods: Nano-matrix particles of CsA with mannitol (nCsAm) were prepared by a flash nano-precipitation technique employing a multi-inlet vortex mixer and evaluated in terms of physicochemical properties, anti-inflammatory effect in the rat model of airway inflammation, pharmacokinetic behavior, and distributions of CsA to side-effect-related organs after intratracheal administration. Results: In nCsAm, spherical nano-particles of CsA were covered with mannitol and the mean particle size was 1.3 μm. The in vitro Next Generation Impactor analysis demonstrated fine inhalation performance with a fine particle fraction value of 65.8%. Intratracheal nCsAm (100 μg-CsA/rat) significantly attenuated the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the airway in the rat model of airway inflammation, followed by suppression of the inflammatory biomarkers. After intratracheal nCsAm at a pharmacologically effective dose (100 μg-CsA/rat), there was a 42–47-fold decrease in the distribution of CsA to side-effect-related organs such as the kidney and liver compared with oral CsA at a toxic dose (10 mg-CsA/kg), potentially leading to avoidance of systemic side-effects of CsA. Conclusion: Upon these findings, nCsAm prepared with the flash nano-precipitation technique could be a novel dosage form of CsA for inhalation therapy of airway inflammation with a better safety margin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2107-2116
Number of pages10
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Biotechnology
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry


  • anti-inflammatory effect
  • cyclosporine A
  • inhalation
  • nano-matrix particles
  • pharmacokinetic control


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