Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: Hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures

Peter Glick, Susan T. Fiske, Antonio Mladinic, José L. Saiz, Dominic Abrams, Barbara Masser, Bolanle Adetoun, Johnstone E. Osagie, Adebowale Akande, Amos Alao, Annetje Brunner, Tineke M. Willemsen, Kettie Chipeta, Benoit Dardenne, Ap Dijksterhuis, Daniel Wigboldus, Thomas Eckes, Iris Six-Materna, Francisca Expósito, Miguel MoyaMargaret Foddy, Hyun Jeong Kim, Maria Lameiras, Maria José Sotelo, Angelica Mucchi-Faina, Myrna Romani, Nuray Sakalli, Bola Udegbe, Mariko Yamamoto, Miyoko Ui, Maria Cristina Ferreira, Wilson López López

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

865 Scopus citations


The authors argue that complementary hostile and benevolent components of sexism exist across cultures. Male dominance creates hostile sexism (HS), but men's dependence on women fosters benevolent sexism (BS) - subjectively positive attitudes that put women on a pedestal but reinforce their subordination Research with 15,000 men and women in 19 nations showed that (a) HS and BS are coherent constructs that correlate positively across nations, but (b) HS predicts the ascription of negative and BS the ascription of positive traits to women, (c) relative to men, women are more likely to reject HS than BS, especially when overall levels of sexism in a culture are high, and (d) national averages on BS and HS predict gender inequality across nations. These results challenge prevailing notions of prejudice as an antipathy in that BS (an affectionate, patronizing ideology) reflects inequality and is a cross-culturally pervasive complement to HS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)763-775
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2000

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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