Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes in a three-dimensional (3D) unmagnetized plasma are constructed. It is shown that 3D solutions that depend only on energy do not exist. However, 3D solutions that depend on energy and additional constants of motion (such as angular momentum) do exist. Exact analytical as well as numerical solutions are constructed assuming spherical symmetry, and their properties are contrasted with those of 1D solutions. Possible extensions to solutions with cylindrical symmetry with or without a finite magnetic guide field are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)