Bad but Bold: Ambivalent Attitudes Toward Men Predict Gender Inequality in 16 Nations

Peter Glick, Susan T. Fiske, Barbara Masser, Anna Maria Manganelli, Li Li Huang, Yolanda Rodríguez Castro, Tineke M. Willemsen, Iris Six-Matema, Maria Lameiras, Thomas Eckes, Chiara Volpato, Jolynn C.X. Pek, Nuray Sakalh-Uǧurlu, Maria Luiza D'Avila Pereira, Annetje Brunner, Robin Wells

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

354 Scopus citations


A 16-nation study involving 8,360 participants revealed that hostile and benevolent attitudes toward men, assessed by the Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (P. Glick & S. T. Fiske, 1999), were (a) reliably measured across cultures, (b) positively correlated (for men and women, within samples and across nations) with each other and with hostile and benevolent sexism toward women (Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, P. Glick & S. T. Fiske, 1996), and (c) negatively correlated with gender equality in cross-national comparisons. Stereotype measures indicated that men were viewed as having less positively valenced but more powerful traits than women. The authors argue that hostile as well as benevolent attitudes toward men reflect and support gender inequality by characterizing men as being designed for dominance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)713-728
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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