Arthur-Merlin games in Boolean decision trees

R. Raz, G. Tardos, O. Verbitsky, N. Vereshagin

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


It is well known that probabilistic boolean decision trees cannot be much more powerful than deterministic ones. Motivated by a question if randomization can significantly speed up a nondeterministic computation via a boolean decision tree, we address structural properties of Arthur-Merlin games in this model and prove some lower bounds. We consider two cases of interest, the first when the length of communication between the players is limited and the second if it is not. While in the first case we can carry over the relations between the corresponding Turing complexity classes, in the second case we observe in contrast with Turing complexity that a one round Merlin-Arthur protocol is as powerful as a general interactive proof system and, in particular, can simulate a one-round Arthur-Merlin protocol. Moreover, we show that sometimes a Merlin-Arthur protocol can be more efficient than an Arthur-Merlin protocol, and than a Merlin-Arthur protocol with limited communication. This is the case for a boolean function whose set of zeroes is a code with high minimum distance and a natural uniformity condition. Such functions provide an example when the Merlin-Arthur complexity is 1 with one-sided error ϵ∈(2/3, 1), but at the same time the nondeterministic decision tree complexity is ω(n). The latter should be contrasted with another fact we prove. Namely, if a function has Merlin-Arthur complexity 1 with one-sided error probability ϵ∈(0, 2/3], then its nondeterministic complexity is bounded by a constant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - 13th Annual IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity, CCC 1998
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)0818683953
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes
Event13th Annual IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity, CCC 1998 - Buffalo, United States
Duration: Jun 15 1998Jun 18 1998

Publication series

NameProceedings of the Annual IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity
ISSN (Print)1093-0159


Other13th Annual IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity, CCC 1998
Country/TerritoryUnited States

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computational Mathematics


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