Armed forces

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Any general account of democracy in the period 1789-1860 must consider ideologies and practices relating to armed force. Early decades were overshadowed by massive and prolonged warfare, raising questions about the relationship between armies and soldiers, on the one hand, nation and citizenry, on the other. In the subsequent era of peace (or smaller wars), small professional armies were relatively more important-but they nonetheless sometimes incubated reformist political ideologies. They often identified themselves with the interests of the nation, while providing scope for the talented to rise to positions of leadership that they might not otherwise have attained. Napoleon Bonaparte continued to offer a role model-but with political implications that were at best ambiguous. While military coups before 1860 were often staged in defence of liberal or popular governments, a pattern was set by which they might crush these and pave the way for autocracy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRe-Imagining Democracy in the Mediterranean, 1780-1860
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9780198798163
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Arts and Humanities


  • Armies
  • Citizen soldier
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Militias
  • Napoleon
  • Ottoman empire
  • Portugal
  • Spain


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