Applications and prospects for triplet–triplet annihilation photon upconversion

Martin P. Rauch, Robert R. Knowles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Triplet–triplet annihilation photon upconversion (TTA-UC) is a photophysical process in which the energy of two photons are combined into a single photon of higher energy. While this strategy has been recognized in applications ranging from bioimaging to solar energy conversion, its uses in synthetic organic chemistry have not been extensively developed. Here, we present a short tutorial on the theoretical underpinnings and the design principles of TTA-UC systems. Selected applications are then discussed to highlight key features of the TTA mechanism, along with a prospective discussion of the potential of these mechanisms to enable innovation in photocatalysis, methods development, and synthetic organic chemistry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)501-507
Number of pages7
Issue number7-8
StatePublished - 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)


  • Excited state
  • Photochemistry
  • Triplet–triplet annihilation
  • Upconversion


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