Antimicrobial resistance in paediatric Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates amid global implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis

Kristin Andrejko, Buddhika Ratnasiri, William P. Hausdorff, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Joseph A. Lewnard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Pneumococcal diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children globally, and the burden of these diseases might be worsened by antimicrobial resistance. To understand the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) deployment on antimicrobial resistance in pneumococci, we assessed the susceptibility of paediatric pneumococcal isolates to various antimicrobial drugs before and after PCV implementation. Methods: We did a systematic review of studies reporting antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of paediatric pneumococcal isolates between 2000 and 2020 using PubMed and the Antimicrobial Testing Leadership and Surveillance database (ATLAS; Pfizer). Population-based studies of invasive pneumococcal disease or nasopharyngeal colonisation were eligible for inclusion. As primary outcome measures, we extracted the proportions of isolates that were non-susceptible or resistant to penicillin, macrolides, sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim, third-generation cephalosporins, and tetracycline from each study. Where available, we also extracted data on pneumococcal serotypes. We estimated changes in the proportion of isolates with reduced susceptibility or resistance to each antibiotic class using random-effects meta-regression models, adjusting for study-level and region-level heterogeneity, as well as secular trends, invasive or colonising isolate source, and countries' per-capita gross domestic product. Findings: From 4910 studies screened for inclusion, we extracted data from 559 studies on 312 783 paediatric isolates. Susceptibility of isolates varied substantially across regions both before and after implementation of any PCV product. On average across all regions, we estimated significant absolute reductions in the proportions of pneumococci showing non-susceptibility to penicillin (11·5%, 95% CI 8·6–14·4), sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim (9·7%, 4·3–15·2), and third-generation cephalosporins (7·5%, 3·1–11·9), over the 10 years after implementation of any PCV product, and absolute reductions in the proportions of pneumococci resistant to penicillin (7·3%, 5·3–9·4), sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim (16·0%, 11·0–21·2), third-generation cephalosporins (4·5%, 0·3–8·7), macrolides (3·6%, 0·7–6·6) and tetracycline (2·0%, 0·3–3·7). We did not find evidence of changes in the proportion of isolates non-susceptible to macrolides or tetracycline after PCV implementation. Observed changes in penicillin non-susceptibility were driven, in part, by replacement of vaccine-targeted serotypes with non-vaccine serotypes that were less likely to be non-susceptible. Interpretation: Implementation of PCVs has reduced the proportion of circulating pneumococci resistant to first-line antibiotic treatments for pneumonia. This effect merits consideration in assessments of vaccine impact and investments in coverage improvements. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e450-e460
JournalThe Lancet Microbe
Volume2
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Antimicrobial resistance in paediatric Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates amid global implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this