Analysis, manufacture and characterization of Ni/Cu functionally graded structures

Wilfredo Montealegre Rubio, Glaucio H. Paulino, Emilio Carlos Nelli Silva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


In this work, an experimental and numerical analysis and characterization of functionally graded structures (FGSs) is developed. Nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) materials are used as basic materials in the numerical modeling and experimental characterization. For modeling, a MATLAB finite element code is developed, which allows simulation of harmonic and modal analysis considering the graded finite element formulation. For experimental characterization, Ni-Cu FGSs are manufactured by using spark plasma sintering technique. Hardness and Young's modulus are found by using microindentation and ultrasonic measurements, respectively. The effective gradation of Ni/Cu FGS is addressed by means of optical microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing. For the purpose of comparing modeling and experimental results, the hardness curve, along the gradation direction, is used for identifying the gradation profile; accordingly, the experimental hardness curve is used for approximating the Young's modulus variation and the graded finite element modeling is used for verification. For the first two resonance frequency values, a difference smaller than 1% between simulated and experimental results is obtained.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)255-265
Number of pages11
JournalMaterials and Design
StatePublished - Oct 2012
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


  • A. Functionally graded structures
  • A. Nickel/copper gradation
  • C. Spark plasma sintering


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