All-but-the-top: Simple and effective post-processing for word representations

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

144 Scopus citations


Real-valued word representations have transformed NLP applications; popular examples are word2vec and GloVe, recognized for their ability to capture linguistic regularities. In this paper, we demonstrate a very simple, and yet counter-intuitive, postprocessing technique – eliminate the common mean vector and a few top dominating directions from the word vectors – that renders off-the-shelf representations even stronger. The postprocessing is empirically validated on a variety of lexical-level intrinsic tasks (word similarity, concept categorization, word analogy) and sentence-level tasks (semantic textural similarity and text classification) on multiple datasets and with a variety of representation methods and hyperparameter choices in multiple languages; in each case, the processed representations are consistently better than the original ones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes
Event6th International Conference on Learning Representations, ICLR 2018 - Vancouver, Canada
Duration: Apr 30 2018May 3 2018


Conference6th International Conference on Learning Representations, ICLR 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Linguistics and Language


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