Adsorption of water on reconstructed rutile TiO2(011)- (2×1): Ti=O double bonds and surface reactivity

Cristiana Di Valentin, Antonio Tilocca, Annabella Selloni, T. J. Beck, Andreas Klust, Matthias Batzill, Yaroslav Losovyj, Ulrike Diebold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Scopus citations


Recent combined experimental and theoretical studies (Beck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2004, 93, 036104) have provided evidence for Ti=O double-bonded titanyl groups on the reconstructed rutile TiO2-(011)-(2×1) surface. The adsorption of water on the same surface is now investigated to further probe the properties of these groups, as well as to confirm their existence. Ultraviolet photoemission experiments show that water is adsorbed in molecular form at a sample temperature of 110 K. At the same time, the presence of a 3σ state in the photoemission spectra and work function measurements indicate a significant amount of hydroxyls within the first monolayer of water. At room temperature, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) suggests that dissociated water is present, and about 30% of the surface active sites are hydroxylated. These findings are well explained by total energy density functional theory calculations and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations for water adsorption on the titanyl model of TiO2(011)-(2×1). The theoretical results show that a mixed molecular/dissociative layer is the most stable configuration in the monolayer regime at low temperatures, while complete dissociation takes place at 250 K. The arrangement of the protonated mono-coordinated oxygens in the mixed molecular/dissociated layer is consistent with the observed short-range order of the hydroxyls in the STM images.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9895-9903
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number27
StatePublished - Jul 13 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Catalysis
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Adsorption of water on reconstructed rutile TiO2(011)- (2×1): Ti=O double bonds and surface reactivity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this