ACeD: Scalable Data Availability Oracle

Peiyao Sheng, Bowen Xue, Sreeram Kannan, Pramod Viswanath

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

A popular method in practice offloads computation and storage in blockchains by relying on committing only hashes of off-chain data into the blockchain. This mechanism is acknowledged to be vulnerable to a stalling attack: the blocks corresponding to the committed hashes may be unavailable at any honest node. The straightforward solution of broadcasting all blocks to the entire network sidesteps this data availability attack, but it is not scalable. In this paper, we propose ACeD, a scalable solution to this data availability problem with O(1) communication efficiency, the first to the best of our knowledge. The key innovation is a new protocol that requires each of the N nodes to receive only O(1/N) of the block, such that the data is guaranteed to be available in a distributed manner in the network. Our solution creatively integrates coding-theoretic designs inside of Merkle tree commitments to guarantee efficient and tamper-proof reconstruction; this solution is distinct from Asynchronous Verifiable Information Dispersal [7] (in guaranteeing efficient proofs of malformed coding) and Coded Merkle Tree [25] (which only provides guarantees for random corruption as opposed to our guarantees for worst-case corruption). We implement ACeD with full functionality in 6000 lines of Rust code, integrate the functionality as a smart contract into Ethereum via a high-performance implementation demonstrating up to 10,000 transactions per second in throughput and 6000x reduction in gas cost on the Ethereum testnet Kovan. Our code is available in [1].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationFinancial Cryptography and Data Security - 25th International Conference, FC 2021, Revised Selected Papers
EditorsNikita Borisov, Claudia Diaz
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Pages299-318
Number of pages20
ISBN (Print)9783662643303
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes
Event25th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, FC 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: Mar 1 2021Mar 5 2021

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12675 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Conference

Conference25th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, FC 2021
CityVirtual, Online
Period3/1/213/5/21

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)

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