Accessibility of the Shine-Dalgarno Sequence Dictates N-Terminal Codon Bias in E. coli

Sanchari Bhattacharyya, William M. Jacobs, Bharat V. Adkar, Jin Yan, Wenli Zhang, Eugene I. Shakhnovich

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44 Scopus citations


Despite considerable efforts, no physical mechanism has been shown to explain N-terminal codon bias in prokaryotic genomes. Using a systematic study of synonymous substitutions in two endogenous E. coli genes, we show that interactions between the coding region and the upstream Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence modulate the efficiency of translation initiation, affecting both intracellular mRNA and protein levels due to the inherent coupling of transcription and translation in E. coli. We further demonstrate that far-downstream mutations can also modulate mRNA levels by occluding the SD sequence through the formation of non-equilibrium secondary structures. By contrast, a non-endogenous RNA polymerase that decouples transcription and translation largely alleviates the effects of synonymous substitutions on mRNA levels. Finally, a complementary statistical analysis of the E. coli genome specifically implicates avoidance of intra-molecular base pairing with the SD sequence. Our results provide general physical insights into the coding-level features that optimize protein expression in prokaryotes. Bacterial genes tend to have more rare codons in the N terminus. Bhattacharyya et al. show that synonymous substitutions in the N terminus sequester the ribosome binding site and prevent translation initiation, thereby affecting both mRNA and protein levels. Such effects strongly depend on the transcribing RNA polymerase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)894-905.e5
JournalMolecular Cell
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 7 2018
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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