We report the confirmation of a TESS-discovered transiting super-Earth planet orbiting a mid-G star, HD 307842 (TOI-784). The planet has a period of 2.8 days, and the radial velocity (RV) measurements constrain the mass to be 9.67 − 0.82 + 0.83 M ⊕ . We also report the discovery of an additional planet candidate on an outer orbit that is most likely nontransiting. The possible periods of the planet candidate are approximately 20-63 days, with the corresponding RV semiamplitudes expected to range from 3.2 to 5.4 m s−1 and minimum masses from 12.6 to 31.1 M ⊕. The radius of the transiting planet (planet b) is 1.93 − 0.09 + 0.11 R ⊕ , which results in a mean density of 7.4 − 1.2 + 1.4 g cm − 3 suggesting that TOI-784 b is likely to be a rocky planet though it has a comparable radius to a sub-Neptune. We found TOI-784 b is located at the lower edge of the so-called “radius valley” in the radius versus insolation plane, which is consistent with the photoevaporation or core-powered mass-loss prediction. The TESS data did not reveal any significant transit signal of the planet candidate, and our analysis shows that the orbital inclinations of planet b and the planet candidate are 88.60 ° − 0.86 + 0.84 and ≤88.°3-89.°2, respectively. More RV observations are needed to determine the period and mass of the second object, and search for additional planets in this system.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science