A Taxonomy of external and internal attention

Marvin M. Chun, Julie D. Golomb, Nicholas B. Turk-Browne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

493 Scopus citations

Abstract

Attention is a core property of all perceptual and cognitive operations. Given limited capacity to process competing options, attentional mechanisms select, modulate, and sustain focus on information most relevant for behavior. A significant problem, however, is that attention is so ubiquitous that it is unwieldy to study. We propose a taxonomy based on the types of information that attention operates over the targets of attention. At the broadest level, the taxonomy distinguishes between external attention and internal attention. External attention refers to the selection and modulation of sensory information. External attention selects locations in space, points in time, or modality-specific input. Such perceptual attention can also select features defined across any of these dimensions, or object representations that integrate over space, time, and modality. Internal attention refers to the selection, modulation, and maintenance of internally generated information, such as task rules, responses, long-term memory, or working memory. Working memory, in particular, lies closest to the intersection between external and internal attention. The taxonomy provides an organizing framework that recasts classic debates, raises new issues, and frames understanding of neural mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-101
Number of pages29
JournalAnnual Review of Psychology
Volume62
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 10 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)

Keywords

  • cognitive control
  • consciousness
  • memory
  • perception
  • selection

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