This paper presents the first systematic study of proto-neutron star (PNS) convection in three dimensions (3D) based on our latest numerical FORNAX models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN). We confirm that PNS convection commonly occurs, and then quantify the basic physical characteristics of the convection. By virtue of the large number of long-term models, the diversity of PNS convective behaviour emerges. We find that the vigour of PNS convection is not correlated with CCSN dynamics at large radii, but rather with the mass of PNS − heavier masses are associated with stronger PNS convection. We find that PNS convection boosts the luminosities of νμ, ντ, ν¯μ, and ν¯τ neutrinos, while the impact on other species is complex due to a competition of factors. Finally, we assess the consequent impact on CCSN dynamics and the potential for PNS convection to generate pulsar magnetic fields.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science
- Supernovae: general