A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis

David N. Keys, Byung In Lee, Anna Di Gregorio, Naoe Harafuji, J. Chris Detter, Mei Wang, Orsalem Kahsai, Sylvia Ahn, Cindy Zhang, Sharon A. Doyle, Noriyuki Satoh, Yutaka Satou, Hidetoshi Saiga, Allen T. Christian, Dan S. Rokhsar, Trevor L. Hawkins, Mike Levine, Paul M. Richardson

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31 Scopus citations


A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (> 100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)679-683
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 18 2005
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


  • Ascidian
  • Cis-regulation
  • Hox cluster


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