A review of salt scaling: I. Phenomenology

John J. Valenza, George W. Scherer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

192 Scopus citations


Salt scaling is a major durability issue for concrete, so the phenomenon has been the subject of an extensive research effort. Nevertheless, there is no agreement regarding the cause of this damage, so no means for preventing salt scaling can be identified. One of the primary reasons for this shortcoming is the lack of a critical review of the research in this field. Such a compilation is presented in the present series of articles. In Part I, we review the experimental studies that have revealed the phenomenology of salt scaling. In Part II, proposed mechanisms for scaling are discussed, and the adequacy of these mechanisms is judged based on their ability to account for the characteristics outlined here.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1007-1021
Number of pages15
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


  • Phenomenology
  • Salt scaling


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